Palladio and RAW

For this week’s practicum, I am using Palladio and RAW to show how networks are constructed, what they reveal, and how they can be useful for historians.

I began in Palladio by copying and pasting the battle and unit spreadsheet information into it, and then added in the CSV that contained the battles and coordinates. I first looked at the map view. The map view is interesting since you can see where the battles took place in relation to one another, and you can choose if you want to size the points, which makes the battle sites bigger based on the frequency of their usage in the dataset. The graph view shows the relationships between the units and the battles. If you zoom in closer, you can see that the 44th New York Infantry fought at the Battle of Petersburg and fought at the Battle of Gettysburg, along with the 29th New York Infantry, 1st Michigan Calvary, and the 136th New York Infantry.

Map view

Map view

Map view with size points

Map view with size points

Network showing relationships between battles and infantries

Network showing relationships between battles and infantries

44th New York Infantry fought at Gettysburg along with others

44th New York Infantry fought at Gettysburg along with others

Raw constructs networks slightly differently than Palladio. I began the same way, with copying and pasting the spreadsheet of battle and unit into the interface. I was then asked to choose one chart out of 16 options. Obviously not all charts will work with the data I input. I first tried the Alluvial Diagram.

Aldie
2
Aldie
Atlanta
1
Atlanta
Averasboro
1
Averasboro
Aylett’s
1
Aylett’s
Bealton Station
1
Bealton Station
Beaver Dam
1
Beaver Dam
Bentonville
1
Bentonville
Berryville
1
Berryville
Bethesda Church
1
Bethesda Church
Beverly Ford
1
Beverly Ford
Brandy Station
1
Brandy Station
Brentsville
2
Brentsville
Bull Run
4
Bull Run
Cassville
1
Cassville
Cedar Creek
1
Cedar Creek
Centreville
1
Centreville
Chancellorsville
3
Chancellorsville
Charles City Courthouse
1
Charles City Courthouse
Charlestown
1
Charlestown
Chattanooga
1
Chattanooga
Cold Harbor
2
Cold Harbor
Cross Keys
2
Cross Keys
Culpepper Court House
2
Culpepper Court House
Dallas
1
Dallas
Deep Bottom
1
Deep Bottom
Dinwiddle
1
Dinwiddle
Fairfax Courthouse
1
Fairfax Courthouse
Falling Waters
1
Falling Waters
Fisher’s Hill
1
Fisher’s Hill
Five Forks
1
Five Forks
Fort Scott
1
Fort Scott
Fredericksburg
1
Fredericksburg
Front Royal
2
Front Royal
Gaines Mill
1
Gaines Mill
Gettysburg
4
Gettysburg
Grove Church
1
Grove Church
Groveton
1
Groveton
Hagerstown
1
Hagerstown
Halltown
1
Halltown
Hanover Court House
1
Hanover Court House
Harrisonburg
1
Harrisonburg
Hartwood Church
1
Hartwood Church
Hawes’s Shop
1
Hawes’s Shop
Hope Landing
1
Hope Landing
Jefferson
1
Jefferson
Jones Cross Roads
1
Jones Cross Roads
Jones’ Bridge
1
Jones’ Bridge
Kelly’s Ford
1
Kelly’s Ford
Kenesaw Mountain
1
Kenesaw Mountain
Laurel Hill
1
Laurel Hill
Leetown
1
Leetown
Liberty Mills
1
Liberty Mills
Luray
1
Luray
Malvern Hill
1
Malvern Hill
Middleburg
2
Middleburg
Middletown
2
Middletown
Milford Station
1
Milford Station
Mine Run
1
Mine Run
Monterey
1
Monterey
New Creek Station
1
New Creek Station
New Market
1
New Market
North Anna
1
North Anna
Old Church
1
Old Church
Opequon
2
Opequon
Peach tree Creek
1
Peach tree Creek
Petersburg
1
Petersburg
Picket
1
Picket
Piedmont
1
Piedmont
Piney Branch Church
1
Piney Branch Church
Poplar Springs
1
Poplar Springs
Port Republic
1
Port Republic
Prince George Court House
1
Prince George Court House
Racoon Ford
1
Racoon Ford
Rapidan
1
Rapidan
Rapidan Station
1
Rapidan Station
Rappahanock Station
3
Rappahanock Station
Resaca
1
Resaca
Richmond
1
Richmond
Robertson’s River
1
Robertson’s River
Robertson’s Tavern
1
Robertson’s Tavern
Rood’s Hill
1
Rood’s Hill
Shepherdstown
2
Shepherdstown
Smithfield
2
Smithfield
Snicker’s Gap
1
Snicker’s Gap
Stone Mountain
1
Stone Mountain
Strasburg
1
Strasburg
Todd’s Tavern
1
Todd’s Tavern
Tom’s Brook
1
Tom’s Brook
Totopotomoy
1
Totopotomoy
Trevilian Station
2
Trevilian Station
Turner’s Ferry
1
Turner’s Ferry
Upperville
1
Upperville
Wauhatchie
1
Wauhatchie
Weldon Railroad
1
Weldon Railroad
White House
1
White House
White Post
1
White Post
Wilderness
2
Wilderness
Willow Springs
1
Willow Springs
Winchester
1
Winchester
Yellow Tavern
1
Yellow Tavern
Yorktown
1
Yorktown
136th New York Infantry
14
136th New York Infantry
1st Michigan Cavalry
28
1st Michigan Cavalry
29th New York Infantry
6
29th New York Infantry
44th New York Infantry
22
44th New York Infantry
4th New York Cavalry
54
4th New York Cavalry

Circle Packing was another network that worked with the dataset, but it did not present the information in a fashion that I found aesthetically pleasing, nor was it any more or less helpful than the Alluvial Diagram. The Circular Dendrogram presented the information in a way that was easy to look at and can be assessed quickly. The information is not as spread out as it is in the Alluvial Diagram, which I thought made it much easier to read.

136th New York InfantryChancellorsvilleGettysburgWauhatchieChattanoogaResacaCassvilleDallasKenesaw MountainPeach tree CreekAtlantaStone MountainAverasboroBentonvilleTurner’s Ferry1st Michigan CavalryBrentsvilleFort ScottGettysburgMontereyHagerstownFalling WatersRapidanRobertson’s RiverBrandy StationCentrevilleTodd’s TavernBeaver DamYellow TavernMilford StationHawes’s ShopOld ChurchCold HarborTrevilian StationWinchesterFront RoyalShepherdstownSmithfieldOpequonCedar CreekPicketDinwiddleFive ForksWillow Springs29th New York InfantryBull RunCross KeysGrovetonChancellorsvilleGettysburg44th New York InfantryYorktownHanover Court HouseGaines MillMalvern HillBull RunShepherdstownFredericksburgChancellorsvilleMiddleburgGettysburgRappahanock StationMine RunWildernessPiney Branch ChurchLaurel HillNorth AnnaTotopotomoyCold HarborBethesda ChurchPetersburgWeldon RailroadPoplar Springs4th New York CavalryRappahanock StationPiedmontNew Creek StationStrasburgHarrisonburgCross KeysPort RepublicNew MarketMiddletownLurayBull RunFairfax CourthouseGrove ChurchHartwood ChurchHope LandingKelly’s FordSnicker’s GapAldieMiddleburgUppervilleJones Cross RoadsCulpepper Court HouseBrentsvilleRacoon FordRapidan StationBeverly FordBealton StationRobertson’s TavernRichmondAylett’sWildernessTrevilian StationWhite HouseJones’ BridgeCharles City CourthousePrince George Court HouseDeep BottomWhite PostBerryvilleFront RoyalCharlestownHalltownSmithfieldLeetownOpequonFisher’s HillTom’s BrookRood’s HillLiberty MillsJefferson

I attempted to use the Cluster Dendrogram, but it presented the information in such a way as to render it useless for this particular dataset. Clustered Force Layout was another diagram that was not helpful. Convex Hull, Delaunay Triangulation, Hexagonal Binning, Parallel Coordinates, all required only numbers or dates, so I could not use those. Reingold-Tilford Tree presented the dataset in a way similar to Alluvial Diagram, but it was more organized and easier to read quickly.

136th New York InfantryChancellorsvilleGettysburgWauhatchieChattanoogaResacaCassvilleDallasKenesaw MountainPeach tree CreekAtlantaStone MountainAverasboroBentonvilleTurner’s Ferry1st Michigan CavalryBrentsvilleFort ScottGettysburgMontereyHagerstownFalling WatersRapidanRobertson’s RiverBrandy StationCentrevilleTodd’s TavernBeaver DamYellow TavernMilford StationHawes’s ShopOld ChurchCold HarborTrevilian StationWinchesterFront RoyalShepherdstownSmithfieldOpequonCedar CreekPicketDinwiddleFive ForksWillow Springs29th New York InfantryBull RunCross KeysGrovetonChancellorsvilleGettysburg44th New York InfantryYorktownHanover Court HouseGaines MillMalvern HillBull RunShepherdstownFredericksburgChancellorsvilleMiddleburgGettysburgRappahanock StationMine RunWildernessPiney Branch ChurchLaurel HillNorth AnnaTotopotomoyCold HarborBethesda ChurchPetersburgWeldon RailroadPoplar Springs4th New York CavalryRappahanock StationPiedmontNew Creek StationStrasburgHarrisonburgCross KeysPort RepublicNew MarketMiddletownLurayBull RunFairfax CourthouseGrove ChurchHartwood ChurchHope LandingKelly’s FordSnicker’s GapAldieMiddleburgUppervilleJones Cross RoadsCulpepper Court HouseBrentsvilleRacoon FordRapidan StationBeverly FordBealton StationRobertson’s TavernRichmondAylett’sWildernessTrevilian StationWhite HouseJones’ BridgeCharles City CourthousePrince George Court HouseDeep BottomWhite PostBerryvilleFront RoyalCharlestownHalltownSmithfieldLeetownOpequonFisher’s HillTom’s BrookRood’s HillLiberty MillsJefferson

My attempts with Scatter Plot, Small Multiples, Steamgraph and Voronoi Tessellation were unsuccessful, but I did have fun playing with Treemap. I was able to get two different results by manipulating the hierarchy and color fields. The first embedded network is with unit in the hierarchy field and battle in the color field, and the second is the reverse.

136th New York Infantry: 14136th New York Infantry1st Michigan Cavalry: 281st Michigan Cavalry29th New York Infantry: 629th New York Infantry44th New York Infantry: 2244th New York Infantry4th New York Cavalry: 544th New York Cavalry

Chancellorsville: 3ChancellorsvilleGettysburg: 4GettysburgWauhatchie: 1WauhatchieChattanooga: 1ChattanoogaResaca: 1ResacaCassville: 1CassvilleDallas: 1DallasKenesaw Mountain: 1Kenesaw MountainPeach tree Creek: 1Peach tree CreekAtlanta: 1AtlantaStone Mountain: 1Stone MountainAverasboro: 1AverasboroBentonville: 1BentonvilleTurner’s Ferry: 1Turner’s FerryBrentsville: 2BrentsvilleFort Scott: 1Fort ScottMonterey: 1MontereyHagerstown: 1HagerstownFalling Waters: 1Falling WatersRapidan: 1RapidanRobertson’s River: 1Robertson’s RiverBrandy Station: 1Brandy StationCentreville: 1CentrevilleTodd’s Tavern: 1Todd’s TavernBeaver Dam: 1Beaver DamYellow Tavern: 1Yellow TavernMilford Station: 1Milford StationHawes’s Shop: 1Hawes’s ShopOld Church: 1Old ChurchCold Harbor: 2Cold HarborTrevilian Station: 2Trevilian StationWinchester: 1WinchesterFront Royal: 2Front RoyalShepherdstown: 2ShepherdstownSmithfield: 2SmithfieldOpequon: 2OpequonCedar Creek: 1Cedar CreekPicket: 1PicketDinwiddle: 1DinwiddleFive Forks: 1Five ForksWillow Springs: 1Willow SpringsBull Run: 4Bull RunCross Keys: 2Cross KeysGroveton: 1GrovetonYorktown: 1YorktownHanover Court House: 1Hanover Court HouseGaines Mill: 1Gaines MillMalvern Hill: 1Malvern HillFredericksburg: 1FredericksburgMiddleburg: 2MiddleburgRappahanock Station: 3Rappahanock StationMine Run: 1Mine RunWilderness: 2WildernessPiney Branch Church: 1Piney Branch ChurchLaurel Hill: 1Laurel HillNorth Anna: 1North AnnaTotopotomoy: 1TotopotomoyBethesda Church: 1Bethesda ChurchPetersburg: 1PetersburgWeldon Railroad: 1Weldon RailroadPoplar Springs: 1Poplar SpringsPiedmont: 1PiedmontNew Creek Station: 1New Creek StationStrasburg: 1StrasburgHarrisonburg: 1HarrisonburgPort Republic: 1Port RepublicNew Market: 1New MarketMiddletown: 2MiddletownLuray: 1LurayFairfax Courthouse: 1Fairfax CourthouseGrove Church: 1Grove ChurchHartwood Church: 1Hartwood ChurchHope Landing: 1Hope LandingKelly’s Ford: 1Kelly’s FordSnicker’s Gap: 1Snicker’s GapAldie: 2AldieUpperville: 1UppervilleJones Cross Roads: 1Jones Cross RoadsCulpepper Court House: 2Culpepper Court HouseRacoon Ford: 1Racoon FordRapidan Station: 1Rapidan StationBeverly Ford: 1Beverly FordBealton Station: 1Bealton StationRobertson’s Tavern: 1Robertson’s TavernRichmond: 1RichmondAylett’s: 1Aylett’sWhite House: 1White HouseJones’ Bridge: 1Jones’ BridgeCharles City Courthouse: 1Charles City CourthousePrince George Court House: 1Prince George Court HouseDeep Bottom: 1Deep BottomWhite Post: 1White PostBerryville: 1BerryvilleCharlestown: 1CharlestownHalltown: 1HalltownLeetown: 1LeetownFisher’s Hill: 1Fisher’s HillTom’s Brook: 1Tom’s BrookRood’s Hill: 1Rood’s HillLiberty Mills: 1Liberty MillsJefferson: 1Jefferson

After installing Gephi about five times, I was not ever successful in getting it to work. While it would install correctly, it would not let me get to the data laboratory.

How are text mining and networks similar or different? With text mining, you are looking at word frequency. This can be used to identify which sources mention the word as well as how often it is used within a corpus. With networks you can examine the relationship between sources. When using Palladio and RAW, I was able to determine the relationship between units and battles, when they overlapped, and which unit fought the most battles. Both of these analytic methods would be considered investigative tools, not communicative tools, since neither of these analytic methods provides any context. Each tool is unique: while we can text mine the content we cannot text mine the networks, and while we can network the relationships we cannot network the content. They can be used in conjunction with one another since they are complementary.

Networks and text mining have taught me how useful digital tools can be in interpreting historical data. They can reveal trends and patterns that otherwise would be buried within the information and they examine the data in ways that humans would never be able to. It is astonishing how we can use technology to further scholarship. I am learning to look at how we can use these tools to analyze sources differently and more efficiently, and how they can be used to further the historical narrative.

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